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Parovirus B19 is best known for causing a childhood malady, "fifth disease?\" (erythema infectiosum) or "Slapped Cheek Syndrome".

After being infected, patients usually develop the illness after an incubation period of four to fourteen days. The disease commences with fever and malaise while the virus is most abundant in the bloodstream, and patients are usually no longer infectious once the characteristic rash of this disease has appeared.
Any age may be affected, although it is most common in children aged six to ten years.

The bright red cheeks are a defining symptom of the infection in children (hence the name "slapped cheek disease"), but the rash will not extend over the bridge of the nose or around the mouth.

In addition to the red cheeks, children often develop a red, lacy rash on the rest of the body, with the upper arms and legs being the most common locations. Teenagers and adults may present with a self-limited arthritis.

Patients are usually no longer infectious once the characteristic rash of this disease has appeared. Any age may be affected although it is most common in children aged six to ten years.

By the time adulthood is reached about half the population will have become immune following infection at some time in their past.
Outbreaks can arise especially in nurseries and schools.

The disease is usually mild, but it does have the ability to cause some serious problems: it is associated with spontaneous abortion in pregnant women, and with aplastic crisis in persons with chronic hemolytic anemia. The rash can last a couple of weeks and may itch.
The name ?fifth disease? stems from the fact that when diseases causing childhood rashes were enumerated, it was the fifth listed.