DIABETES: Any of various abnormal conditions characterized by the secretion and excretion of excessive amounts of urine; especially Diabetes Mellitus.
DIABETES INSIPIDUS: a disorder of the pituitary gland characterized by intense thirst and by the excretion of large amounts of urine.
HYPOGLYCEMIA: A condition wherein the pancreas produces little or no insulin or where the body exhibits an inability to make use of insulin. Potential symptoms might include visual difficulties, kidney dysfunction, high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and neurological problems. Early symptoms may include strong thirst, frequent urination, hunger, weight loss, fatigue, vomiting, blurred vision and numbness in the extremities.
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder, specifically affecting carbohydrate metabolism. It is a disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia (high glucose blood sugar). It is a metabolic disease that requires medical diagnosis, treatment and lifestyle changes. The World Health Organization recognizes three main forms of diabetes: type 1, type 2 and gestational diabetes (or type 3, occurring during pregnancy), although these three "types" of diabetes are more accurately considered patterns of pancreatic failure rather than single diseases. Type 1 is generally due to autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing cells ? beta cells ? while type 2 and gestational diabetes are due to insulin resistance by tissues. Type 2 may progress to destruction of the insulin-producing cells of the pancreas, but is still considered Type 2, even though insulin administration may be required.
Since the first therapeutic use of insulin (1921) diabetes has been a treatable but chronic condition, and the main risks to health are its characteristic long-term complications. These include cardiovascular disease (doubled risk), chronic renal failure (it is the main cause for dialysis in developed world adults), retinal damage which can lead to blindness and is the most significant cause of adult blindness in the non-elderly in the developed world, nerve damage, erectile dysfunction (impotence) and gangrene with risk of amputation of toes, feet, and even legs.